SASS Tutorial

Sass (Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets) is a CSS preprocessor that adds powerful features to the CSS language, such as variables, mixins, functions, and control structures. It allows you to write more concise and maintainable stylesheets, and makes it easier to apply styles consistently across a project.

Here are some key concepts to understand when learning Sass:

  • Variables: You can use variables to store values that you want to reuse throughout your stylesheet, such as colors, font sizes, and dimensions. To define a variable in Sass, you use the $ symbol followed by the variable name and the value. For example:
$primary-color: #333;
$font-size: 16px;

You can then use the variables in your styles by referencing the variable name:

body {
   color: $primary-color;
   font-size: $font-size;
  • Mixins: Mixins allow you to create reusable blocks of styles that can be included in multiple places in your stylesheet. To create a mixin, you use the @mixin directive followed by the mixin name and the styles you want to include:
@mixin border-radius {
   border-radius: 5px;

You can then include the mixin in your styles by using the @include directive followed by the mixin name:

.button {
   @include border-radius;
   border: 1px solid #333;
   padding: 10px;
  • Functions: Sass provides a range of built-in functions that you can use to manipulate values, such as calculating percentages or adjusting colors. You can also create your own custom functions. To use a function, you call it by its name and pass in any required arguments. Here are some examples of built-in Sass functions:
// Calculate a percentage
$width: percentage(0.5); // 50%

// Adjust the hue of a color
$color: hsl(120, 100%, 50%); // A bright green color

// Lighten or darken a color
$light-color: lighten($color, 10%); // A slightly lighter green colo

You can also create your own custom functions by using the @function directive. Here is an example of a custom function that takes a color and a percentage, and returns a color that is that percentage lighter or darker:

@function adjust-color($color, $percent) {
  $hsl: hsl($color);
  $lightness: nth($hsl, 3);
  $lightness: $lightness + $percent;
  $hsl: set-nth($hsl, 3, $lightness);
  @return hsl($hsl);

You can then use this function in your styles like any other function:

$color: #333;
$lighter-color: adjust-color($color, 10%);
$darker-color: adjust-color($color, -10%);

body {
   color: $color;
   background-color: $lighter-color;
   a {
      color: $darker-color;
  • Control structures: Sass supports control structures such as @if, @else, and @for that allow you to create more complex stylesheets that can adapt to different conditions. Here is an example of how to use an

@if statement in Sass:

$type: large;

@if $type == large {
   h1 {
      font-size: 36px;
} @else {
   h1 {
      font-size: 24px;

Here is an example of how to use a @for loop in Sass:

@for $i from 1 through 10 {
   .item-#{$i} {
      width: 2em * $i;

This will generate the following CSS:

.item-1 {
   width: 2em;
.item-2 {
   width: 4em;
.item-3 {
   width: 6em;

To get started with Sass, you will need to install it on your development machine. You can then create a Sass file with the .scss file extension, and use the Sass command-line tool to compile it into a regular CSS file. There are also a number of resources available online to help you learn more about Sass, including the official documentation and tutorials.

I hope this helps you get started with learning Sass!